COVID-19 (Coronavirus)-Its History, Symptoms, Causes and Precautions

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COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus called SARS-COV-2. This virus is part of the family of coronavirus. If a person who has this disease coughs or sneezes, then the virus of this disease spreads in the air and you will be surprised to know that the virus of this disease can be alive for many hours in the air or on any surface. Today we will discuss COVID-19 (Coronavirus)-Its History, symptoms causes and precautions

Talking about the symptoms of the disease, it includes fever, cough, and difficulty in breathing. Even if a patient is recovering from this viral infection, many times symptoms are also seen in him, such as decreased ability to smell or feeling excessively tired.

Also, read- 10 tips to increase the child’s immunity naturally during the lockdown in India

History of Corona Virus

In the year 2019, the presence of this virus was observed in a seafood market in Wuhan city of Hubei province of China and after that, the virus caught the world around the world. At this time, COVID-19 has taken the form of an epidemic worldwide.

It is believed that COVID-19 originated as junotic, ie it has spread from animals to humans. However, so far no strong evidence has been found that COVID-19 has started spreading from animals. In the early months of the year 2020, bats, snakes, and pangolins are being suspected of this. This infection spreads very fast. Talking about the speed of its spread, a patient of COVID-19 can infect 1.5 to 3.5 healthy persons.

Also, read- Mobile side effects on children-its risk factors and remedies

Stages of COVID-19

From animals to humans

Till now, there is not much information about the animal host of COVID-19, which means it has started spreading mainly. Many animals are being held responsible for this. First, snakes were considered the main source of this virus. However, experts suggested that since the snake is a creeping animal, the SARS-COV-2 can be spread directly to humans who are mammals.

The DNA of viruses with COVID-19 infection in humans is up to 96 percent similar to the DNA of bats. However, the DNA of bats with the covid-19 virus has 2 sites, which prevents it from binding to the receptor present in the human body.

After this, it was thought that maybe some other animal could be the host of this infection, and then the name came out of the pangolin. Although pangolins are also mammalian organisms, there are very few similarities between them and the SARS-COV-2 virus. According to some experts, this virus changed its form when the virus was quietly spreading in the human body.

Diffusion from human to human

The spread of coronavirus from human to human occurs when a person suffering from coronavirus coughs and sneezes and a healthy person comes in direct contact with it. Let us tell you that this virus named SARS-COV-2 survives for about 3 hours in the air and at different times on other surfaces. According to the University of California scientists, the virus can survive up to 24 hours on cardboard, up to 4 hours on copper, and 3 days on steel and plastic.

Health authorities have identified 4 main stages of the spread of COVID-19:

Stage 1

Cases from abroad – in which the patient is infected in another country. New cases are coming from the affected areas where the cases of this virus are coming.

Stage 2

Spreading the infection in the local people – In this, patients from outside spread the infection. By the way, people who come in contact with people from outside, also start showing symptoms of this virus. By the way, it mainly consists of family members or near people from outside. But there can also be people who have come very close to the person who came from outside.

Stage 3

Dissemination at the community level – In this, the virus starts spreading to people who do not have any contact with any person who has had this infection before and also some kind of travel history in such affected areas. Does not happen.

Stage 4

Pandemic – This disease takes the form of pandemic and hundreds of cases start coming up every day. Just like what happened in China and Italy.

covid-19-coronavirus-its-history-symptoms-causes-and-precautions

Symptoms of COVID-19 (Corona Virus)

COVID-19 infection either shows no symptoms or may occur with very few and mild symptoms, in some cases very severe symptoms also appear. It takes 1 to 14 days to show the symptoms of this infection. The most common symptoms of this disease are –

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Have trouble breathing
  • The sudden smell and taste

Symptoms of COVID-19 disease may also vary according to the severity of the infection. Symptoms such as headache, sore throat, sneezing, feeling tired, muscle ache, watery nose, phlegm in the chest also appear in some patients. Some other symptoms of the disease are also –

  • Pneumonia
  • Wheezing
  • Tongue and lips turn blue
  • Have a stroke
  • Many body parts stop working and then death

Causes of COVID-19 (Corona Virus)

Several studies have been conducted so far that the virus is bound to a receptor called ACE 2 and it is present in a large number mainly in the lungs, heart, and intestine, and from there it enters the body cells. This is the reason that this infection mainly shows respiratory symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms. ACE 2 is usually fastened by an enzyme named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This enzyme plays an important role in maintaining the blood pressure and electrolyte balance of the body.

Risk factors: If a person has diseases like diabetes or heart disease if a person has low immunity if a person is more than 60 years of age and children under 5 years of age have COVID-19 disease. The danger is greatest. Despite all this, the disease can affect people of all ages.

Also read- Adolescence changes – problems and important tips in English

Prevention of COVID-19 (Corona Virus )

Since there is no cure or vaccine for the COVID-19 disease at this time, prevention and prevention is the only way to avoid the disease. As far as the protective measures to be taken to prevent this disease are concerned, to reduce the penetration of this virus, it is most important to keep away from social distancing i.e. people and personal hygiene. The World Health Organization WHO has given some important suggestions to avoid COVID-19 –

  • Avoid visiting crowded places, especially when you are over 60 years of age, if your immunity is weak or if you are already suffering from some kind of disease.
  • Stay home as far as possible and avoid unnecessary travel altogether.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water every 20 minutes for at least 20 seconds.
  • If there is no soap and water, you can also clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, However, it is better to use a sanitizer than soap-water. Wash, as it is capable of killing more microbes than a sanitizer. If your hands are dirtier then the sanitizer will not be able to help you.
  • Do not touch your face, eyes, nose, and mouth, because the virus can penetrate directly inside the body by touching these body parts.
  • Do not place your palms on the mouth while coughing or sneezing. Instead, use your elbow or tissue paper and then throw the tissue in a dustbin with a closed lid.
  • Keep yourself physically active as far as possible at home. Exercise regularly, because it helps the body to function properly. Also, exercising also helps in dealing with anxiety and stress during the epidemic.
covid-19-coronavirus-its-history-symptoms-causes-and-precautions

Important tips for children to avoid Corona Virus

Children are not so severely affected by the coronavirus than adults. However, it is very important for children to adopt the same rescue measures that you are adopting for yourself –

  • Tell children about cleanliness. For example, if he has a cough or sneeze, then use a tissue or handkerchief and then throw the used tissue into the dustbin.
  • Wash children’s toys and soft toys in warm water if possible and make sure that the toy has dried completely before giving them their toys back.

Diagnosis of COVID-19 (Corona Virus)

The COVID-19 disease is identified in two ways – serological test (blood test) and nucleic acid sequencing test (RT-PCR test). In serological testing, 2 different blood samples are taken at a particular interval.

The first sample – in the first week and the second blood sample – in the second or third week when symptoms of the disease start appearing in suspected patients. This is mainly done to see how the affected person’s body is reacting to the virus.

Nucleic acid sequencing tests are performed via polymerase chain reaction PCR. In this, there is a part of the throat behind the nose or oropharyngeal, mouth, here the sample is tested by taking a cotton swab.

Then it is tested in the lab, to know whether the virus is present in it or not. In many cases, urine and mucus are also examined. Lung biopsy is also done if the disease reaches a very critical condition.

covid-19-coronavirus-its-history-symptoms-causes-and-precautions

Treatment of COVID-19 (Corona Virus)

Currently, there is no cure for the pandemic named COVID-19. Controlling the symptoms of the disease is the only option at this time. If the case is not too serious, then no treatment is needed. However, if you have a cough and fever, the doctor can give you some medicine, so that the symptoms of your disease do not worsen.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has issued some guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19 patients –

  • Oxygen therapy is given in cases where there is a lack of oxygen in the body, the patient starts breathing or the patient starts feeling jerky.
  • If the patient is not experiencing shock, then the patient is given a drip in the veins. During this process of giving drip, full care is taken because if there is a slight disturbance in it, the condition of the patient can worsen.
  • If a person has sepsis or wound, antimicrobials are given for the treatment to reduce the suspected symptoms of respiratory disease COVID-19. Antibiotics are given keeping in mind whether there is a risk of pneumonia.
  • In order to control pneumonia, the systemic corticosteroids should not be given to the patient unless it is necessary for any other reason.

People who already have a disease are treated by looking at their chronic illnesses and current condition.

The doctors then decide whether any type of treatment needs to be changed, depending on the patient’s condition. Diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure are called chronic diseases because medicines have to be consumed throughout life to control these diseases.

References

1.World Health Organization [Internet]. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
2.Andersen G. Kristian, et al. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature medicine. 2020.
3.UCLA health [Internet].  California. US; Study reveals how long COVID-19 remains infectious on cardboard, metal, and plastic
4.World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva (SUI): World Health Organization; Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus
5.American Academy of Family Physicians [Internet]. Leawood (KS). US; Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Also, read- 20 Baby care tips for new moms in English

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