procedure for female sterilization-advantages and disadvantages in India

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Female sterilization is one of the best and effective contraceptive measures. This measure is adopted by women who have completed their families. Female sterilization is known as tubectomy or tubal ligation or female sterilization in English.
According to the National Health Survey in India, 37 percent of married women aged 15–49 underwent sterilization in 2005–06, accounting for 66 percent of the total contraceptive measures used.

This article explains in detail about female sterilization. It explains what female sterilization is, how it happens, what precautions women should take after sterilization, as well as what the advantages and disadvantages of female sterilization can be. The article also talks about the government’s women’s sterilization scheme.


What is female sterilization?

Female sterilization is an effective contraceptive measure aimed at providing protection to any woman from conceiving forever.

In this female sterilization operation, usually, the fallopian tube carrying the egg from the ovary to the uterus is either blocked or cut midway so that the egg cannot reach the womb and conceive.

This is a very small operation and the woman is normally discharged on the same day after the operation.

Female sterilization is 99 percent effective in most cases and only 1 in 200 women are likely to become pregnant even after an operation.

Cesarean operation and mini-laparotomy during sterilization are more popular methods in developing countries, while “laparoscopic sterilization” and “hysteroscopic tubal occlusion” (hysteroscopic tubal occlusion) are the preferred methods in developed countries.

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procedure for female sterilization

Usually, the operation of sterilization is done by giving a general anesthetic but this operation can also be done by giving a local or regional anesthetic. In most women, this operation laparoscope is performed with the help of a special telescope.

The laparoscope is inserted inside a small hole in your abdomen. With a laparoscope, surgeons see that the operation is being done correctly. After this, a small incision is made by inserting a device to block the tube. Several methods are used for this. Often a clip or ring is attached to the tube. These prevent the eggs from mixing with the sperm by creating a block in the clip or ring tube.

Some women need to perform a traditional operation using a large incision. This is more important if they have undergone multiple operations previously or are obese, then laparoscopy may be at risk. Such an operation is called mini-laparotomy.

If blocking the fallopian tube does not work, then part or all of the tubes can be removed. This is called “salpingectomy“.

Sterilization can also be performed when an incision is made for Caesarean delivery. This operation can be done after the baby is born.

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Caution after female sterilization 

Following are the precautions to be taken after a female sterilization operation

  • The surgeon should take full care of going for follow up.
  • Complete a course in medicine and anti-biotics.
  • Inform your surgeon if you are having fever, persistent stomach pain, blood from an incision, or pus.
  • Do not have sex for seven days after the operation or as stated by your surgeon.
  • If your period does not come or the period is delayed, tell your surgeon.

Advantages of female sterilization

Female sterilization is an effective and good option for women who want to take a permanent measure of pregnancy control. It is safe for most women and the failure rate is also very low.

Sterilization does not cause side effects similar to other contraceptive measures such as birth control pills, contraceptive injections, implants, or any intrauterine device (IUD), etc. For example, this process does not affect your hormones, menstruation, and libido.

Some facts also suggest that female sterilization also reduces the risk of ovary cancer.

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Disadvantages  of female sterilization 

Sterilization is a permanent process and is difficult to replace. Some women may regret the future after having the operation, especially when their circumstances change.

Very rarely does the operation spread and you become pregnant, in which case there is more possibility of pregnancy outside the uterus, it is called an ectopic pregnancy. Such a fetus usually stays in the fallopian tube. If this happens, you need immediate treatment. If you feel that you have become pregnant even after undergoing sterilization or without any bleeding or pain in the stomach, see your doctor immediately.

Female sterilization is neither easy nor effective as compared to male vasectomy. There is little risk of using a laparoscope because the operation has to be done without seeing any images. This means that the surgeon does not see how he is placing the device inside the abdomen. This may bother you a bit, but there is nothing to panic as your doctors are very careful while applying equipment so that no other organ is damaged and in most cases, there is no such problem.

Sterilization does not protect you from diseases caused by sex, so if you think you may be at risk of STIs, use a condom.

Like any other operation, it may also have an infection at the incision and a mild risk of a general anesthetic. You may have stomach discomfort, gas, and pain.

Female sterilization scheme in India

In India, a female vasectomy ie tubectomy program is conducted which is voluntary and couples choose the procedure that suits them best. 40,92,806 sterilization operations have been performed in India during the year 2013-14.

According to the government’s plan, if someone dies in this operation or the operation fails, then the government pays compensation to that family.

Rs 2,00,000 if you die within 7 days of operation, Rs 50,000 if you die within 8-30 days of leaving the hospital, Rs 30,000 if the operation is unsuccessful, and the operation inside the hospital The government pays all the expenses and if there is any problem due to the operation till 60 from the date of leaving the hospital. Which is a maximum of Rs 25,000

NoteThis article is for information only. is not recommending any type of therapy under any circumstances.

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